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經濟學人:華爾街新寵--量子計算(1)

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High-tech finance

高科技金融

Quantum for quants

量化交易量子化

Wall Street's latest shiny new thing: quantum computing

華爾街新寵:量子計算

The finance industry has had a long and profitable relationship with computing. It was an early adopter of everything from mainframe computers to artificial intelligence. For most of the past decade more trades have been done at high frequency by complex algorithms than by humans. Now big banks have their eyes on quantum computing, another cutting-edge technology.

金融業和計算技術長期保持着有利可圖的關係。在採用從大型主機到人工智能等各種技術時,這個行業都是領頭羊。在過去十年的大部分時間裏,由複雜算法驅動的高頻交易的交易量已經超過了人工交易。現在,大銀行又盯上了另一項尖端技術——量子計算。

This is the idea, developed by physicists in the 1980s, that the counter-intuitive properties of quantum mechanics might allow for the construction of computers that could perform mathematical feats that no non-quantum machine would ever be capable of. The promise is now starting to be realised. Computing giants like Google and IBM, as well as a flock of smaller competitors, are building and refining quantum hardware.

上世紀80年代物理學家提出,藉助量子力學種種與直覺相悖的特性或許可以發明出量子計算機,實現非量子計算機永遠無法企及的運算壯舉。這一願景現已開始逐漸演變為現實。谷歌和IBM等計算巨頭以及一大批較小的競爭對手都在打造和完善量子硬件。

QQ截圖20210111172454_副本.png

Quantum computers will not beat their classical counterparts at everything. But much of the maths at which they will excel is of interest to bankers. At a conference on December 10th William Zeng, head of quantum research at Goldman Sachs told the audience that quantum computing could have a "revolutionary" impact on the bank, and on finance more broadly.

量子計算機雖然並不會在所有領域都能擊敗經典計算機,但它們擅長解決的許多數學問題卻讓銀行家頗感興趣。在12月10日的一次會議上,高盛集團的量子研究負責人威廉·曾告訴聽眾,量子計算可能給這家銀行以及更廣泛的金融產業帶來“革命性”影響。

Many financial calculations boil down to optimisation problems, a known strength of quantum computers, says Marco Pistoia, the head of a research unit at JPMorgan Chase, who spent many years at IBM before that. Quantum quants hope their machines will boost profits by speeding up asset pricing, digging up better-performing portfolios and making machinelearning algorithms more accurate. A study by BBVA, a Spanish bank, concluded in July that quantum computers could boost credit-scoring, spot arbitrage opportunities and accelerate so-called "Monte Carlo" simulations, which are commonly used in finance to try to model the likely behaviour of markets.

馬可皮斯托亞是摩根大通研究部門的負責人,曾在IBM工作多年,他表示,許多金融運算都可以歸結為最優化問題,而這正是量子計算機的一個已知強項。有量子計算加持的量化投資機構希望通過加速資產定價、挖掘表現更好的投資組合、提高機器學習算法的準確性來提升利潤。西班牙對外銀行(BBVA)在7月完成的研究稱量子計算機可以增強信用評分、發現套利機會並加速“蒙特卡羅模擬——金融業廣泛使用這種模擬來預測市場動向。

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frequency ['fri:kwənsi]

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n. 頻繁,頻率

 
construction [kən'strʌkʃən]

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n. 建設,建造,結構,構造,建築物

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complex ['kɔmpleks]

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adj. 複雜的,複合的,合成的
n. 複合體

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capable ['keipəbl]

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adj. 有能力的,足以勝任的,有 ... 傾向的

 
impact ['impækt,im'pækt]

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n. 衝擊(力), 衝突,影響(力)
vt.

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intelligence [in'telidʒəns]

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n. 理解力,智力
n. 情報,情報工作,情報

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accelerate [æk'seləreit]

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vt. 加速,提前,跳級
vi. 加速

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beat [bi:t]

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v. 打敗,戰勝,打,敲打,跳動
n. 敲打,

 
mechanics [mi'kæniks]

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n. 力學,機械學,(技術的,操作的)過程,手法

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perform [pə'fɔ:m]

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